History of district:
Coimbatore District is a district in the Kongu Nadu region of the state of Tamil Nadu. Coimbatore is the administrative headquarters of the district. It is one of the most industrialized districts and a major textile, industrial, commercial, educational, information technology, healthcare and manufacturing hub of Tamil Nadu. The region is bounded by Tiruppur district in the east, Nilgiris district in the north, Erode district in the north-east, Palghat district and Idukki district of neighboring state of Kerala in the west and south respectively. As of 2011, Coimbatore district had a population of 3,458,045 with a sex-ratio of 1,000 and literacy rate of 84%. Coimbatore district was part of the historical Kongu Nadu and was ruled by the Cheras as it served as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap, the principal trade route between the west coast and Tamil Nadu. Coimbatore was in the middle of the Roman trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu in South India. The medieval Cholas conquered the Kongu Nadu in the 10th century CE. The region was ruled by Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century followed by the Nayaks who introduced the Palayakkarar system under which Kongu nadu region was divided into 24 Palayams. In the later part of the 18th century, the Coimbatore region came under the Kingdom of Mysore and following the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Anglo-Mysore Wars, the British East India Company annexed Coimbatore to the Madras Presidency in 1799. The Coimbatore region played a prominent role in the Second Poligar War (1801) when it was the area of operations of Dheeran Chinnamalai. In 1804, Coimbatore was established as the capital of the newly formed Coimbatore district. The district experienced a textile boom in the early 19th century due to the decline of the cotton industry in Mumbai. Post independence, the district has seen rapid growth due to industrialisation.
Main occupation of the district:
Coimbatore district houses more than 25,000 small, medium and large industries with primary industries being engineering and textiles. Coimbatore is called the "Manchester of South India" due to its extensive textile industry, fed by the surrounding cotton fields. The city has two special economic zones (SEZ), the Coimbatore Hi-Tech Infrastructure (CHIL) SEZ at Saravanampatti and the TIDEL Park near Peelamedu, and at least five more SEZs are in the pipeline. As of 2006 - 07, before the bifurcation of Tirupur district, Coimbatore was the highest revenue earning district in Tamil Nadu. In 2010, Coimbatore ranked 15th in the list of most competitive (by business environment) Indian cities. Coimbatore region experienced a textile boom in the 1920s and 1930s. Though, Robert Stanes had established Coimbatore's first textile mills as early as the late 19th century, it was during this period that Coimbatore emerged as a prominent industrial center. Coimbatore has trade associations such as CODISSIA, COINDIA, SITRA and COJEWEL representing industries in the city. Coimbatore also has a 160,000 square feet (15,000 Sq.m) trade fair ground, built in 1999. It was named COINTEC due to its hosting of INTEC (Small Industries Exhibition). The Trade Fair complex, one of the country's largest, was built in six months, and is owned by CODISSIA (Coimbatore District Small Industries Association). It is also the country's largest pillar-free hall, according to the Limca Book of Records. Coimbatore houses a large number of medium and large textile mills. It also has central textile research institutes like the Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR) and Sardar Vallabhai Patel International School of Textiles and Management. The South Indian Textiles Research Association (SITRA) is also based in Coimbatore. The city also houses two of the Centers of Excellence's (COE) for technical textiles proposed by Government of India, namely Meditech, a medical textile research center based at SITRA, and InduTech based in PSG College of Engineering and Technology. The neighboring city of Tirupur is home to some of Asia’s largest garment manufacturing companies, exporting hosiery clothes worth more than ₹ 50,000 million. Coimbatore is the second largest software producer in Tamil Nadu, next only to Chennai. IT and BPO industry in the city has grown greatly with the launch of TIDEL park and other planned IT parks in and around the city. It is ranked at 17th among the global outsourcing cities. Software exports stood at ₹ 710.66 Crores (7.1 billion) for the financial year 2009 - 10 up 90% from the previous year. Coimbatore has a large and a diversified manufacturing sector facilitated by the presence of research institutes like Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, SITRA and large number of engineering colleges producing about 50,000 engineers annually. Coimbatore is one of major manufacturers of automotive components in India with car manufacturers Maruti Udyog and Tata Motors sourcing up to 30% of their automotive components from the city. India's first indigenously developed diesel engines for cars was manufactured in Coimbatore in 1972. The district also has a number of tier-I, II and III suppliers catering to the needs of the entire gamut of the automobile industry, ranging from two-wheelers and four-wheelers to commercial vehicles and tractors. Coimbatore district has more than 700 wet grinder manufacturers with a monthly output 75,000 units as of March, 2005 and the term "Coimbatore Wet Grinder" has been given a Geographical indication. Coimbatore is also referred to as "the Pump City" as it supplies two thirds of India's requirements of motors and pumps. The district is one of the largest exporters of jewellery renowned for making cast jewellery and machine made jewellery . It is also a major diamond cutting center in South India. The city is home to about 3000 jewellery manufacturing companies and to over 40,000 goldsmiths. Coimbatore district has a large number of poultry farms and is one of the major producers of chicken eggs and processed meat amounting to nearly 95% of the chicken meat exports from the country. It has some of the oldest flour mills in India. The large scale flour mills, which cater to all the southern states, have a combined grinding capacity of more than 50,000 MT per month. In the recent years, the city has seen growth in the hospitality industry with more upscale hotels being set up. Coimbatore is the largest non-metro city for e-commerce in South India.
Air: The district is served by the Coimbatore International Airport at Coimbatore. The Coimbatore International Airport caters to domestic flights to major Indian cities like Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai and international flights to Sharjah and Singapore. Its runway is 9,760 feet (2,970 m) in length and is capable of handling wide-bodied and "fat-bellied" aircraft used for international flights. Sulur Air Force Station, located at Kangayampalayam near the periphery of the city, is an air base of the Indian Air Force. Train: Train service in Coimbatore district started in 1863, upon construction of the Podanur – Madras line connecting Kerala and the west coast with the rest of India. Broad gauge trains connect Coimbatore to all parts of India and Tamil Nadu. Meter gauge line existed between Podanur and Dindigul got closed on May 2009 and is under gauge conversion. Coimbatore Junction is well connected to all the major Indian cities and the district comes under the Jurisdiction of the Salem Division. Coimbatore North, Podanur, Pollachi and Mettupalayam are other important railway stations in the district. The other stations include Peelamedu, Singanallur, Irugur, Perianaikanpalayam, Madukkarai, Somanur and Sulur Road. Road: Coimbatore district is well connected by roads and highways. There are seven regional transport offices namely: Coimbatore South (Peelamedu), Coimbatore North (Thudiyalur), Coimbatore West (Kovaipudur), Mettupalayam, Pollachi and Sulur. There are three National Highways that connects the district to other parts of the states: NH-47 – Salem to Kanyakumari NH-67 – Nagapattinam to Gundlupet NH 209 – Dindigul to Bangalore Town buses serve most parts of intra-city routes as well as other towns and villages in the district. Buses also connect the district with all major towns in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Puducherry and Andhra Pradesh. The number of inter-city routes operated by Coimbatore division is 119 with a fleet of more than 500 buses. It also operates town buses on 257 intra-city routes.
Valparai is about 65 km from Pollachi and is situated at an altitude of 3500 feet above the sea level. Valparai is famous for it tea plantations. Anaimalai Wildlife Sanctuary is about 90 km from Coimbatore and is situated at an altitude of 1,400 meters in the Western Ghats near Pollachi. The area of the sanctuary is 958 Sq.Km. Top Slip is a point located at an altitude of about 800 feet in the Anaimalai mountain range. Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary is located in a valley between the Anaimalai Hills range of Tamil Nadu and the Nelliampathi Hills range of Kerala. The areas hilly and rocky, drained by several rivers, including the Parambikulam, the Sholayar and the Thekkady. Thickly forested with stands of bamboo, sandalwood, rosewood and teak, the sanctuary has some marshy land and scattered patches of grassland. Parambikulam - Aliyar dam project consists of a series of dams interconnected by tunnels and canals at various elevations to harness the Parambikulam, Aliyar, Nirar, Sholiyar, Thunkadavu, Thenkkadi and Palar rivers, laid for irrigation and power generation. It is located in the Anaimalai Hills range. Seven streams-five flowing westward and two towards the east- have been dammed and their reservoirs interlinked by tunnels. The water is ultimately delivered to the drought-prone areas in the Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu and the Chittur area of Kerala. Government of Tamil Nadu promotes eco Tourism in Karamadi forest range. The spot is located at an easy destination reachable for people from Coimbatore. It is located near Pillur in Baralikkadu of Karamadai range in Coimbatore district. The way is a hilly terrain enriched with green vegetation with a pleasant climate providing many view points to have awe for these scenes.