History of district:
Salem District is a district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. Salem is the district headquarters and other major towns in the district include Mettur, Omalur and Attur. Salem is surrounded by hills and the landscape dotted with hillocks. Salem has a vibrant culture dating back to the ancient Salem Nadu ruled by Mazhavar kings. As a district, Salem has its significance in various aspects; it is known for mango cultivation, silver ornaments, textile, sago industries and steel production. As of 2011, the district had a population of 3,482,056 with a sex-ratio of 954 females for every 1,000 males. Salem is one of the biggest cities in Tamil Nadu.
The Date of human civilization in this district reaches far back to the stone ages. The existence of prehistoric culture in Salem is evident from the discovery of Paleolithic and Neolithic stone implements and dung ash heaps in and around Salem. The culture of this region including dates back to 3rd century B.C. and the ancient Chola Nadu. Around the beginning of the Chris in Salem two thousand years ago is evident from the discovery of silver coins of the Roman Emperor Tiberices Claudices Nero (37-68 A.D.) in Koneripatti of Salem in 1987. Salem was the largest district of Tamil Nadu, it was bifurcated into Salem - Dharmapuri districts in 1965 and Namakkal district in 1997.
According to 2011 census, Salem district had a population of 3,482,056 with a sex-ratio of 954 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 344,960 were under the age of six, constituting 180,002 males and 164,958 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 16.67% and 3.43% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the district was 65.64%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. The district had a total of 915,967 households. There were a total of 1,694,160 workers, comprising 247,011 cultivators, 396,158 main agricultural laborers, 132,700 in house hold industries, 785,161 other workers, 133,130 marginal workers, 9,993 marginal cultivators, 58,052 marginal agricultural laborers, 8,803 marginal workers in household industries and 56,282 other marginal workers.
Main occupation of the district:
Salem is a major textile center in Tamil Nadu, with more than 125 spinning mills, weaving units and garment units. Although the city's history of handloom and spinning mills dates back before independence, until the 1960s it had less than a handful of spinning mills. After 1960 private handloom weaving began to increase in the region, along with large-scale cooperative handloom weaving and marketing units. Small-scale hand-dying units began in the region to support the industry. During the 1980s the textile industry grew, and major spinning mills and waste-spinning units were built to support the industry; handloom societies and dying houses were also established at this time. Power-loom units increased in Gugai, Ammapet, Attayampatti, Vennandur, Magudanchavadi, Rasipuram, Komarapalayam Pallipalayam, Jalakandapuram and Ellampillai.
The Salem area also houses Tamil Nadu's greatest number of sago factories for the production of sago foods and starch. In Salem district, 34,000 hectares (130 sq mi) of land are devoted to cassava (the raw material for sago, also known as tapioca) and 650 industrial units are engaged in tapioca processing. In 1981 the Salem Starch and Sago Manufacturers Service Industrial Co-operative Society (popularly known as SAGOSERVE) was established to promote the sago industry, and nearly 80 percent of the national demand for sago and starch is met by SAGOSERVE. In and around Salem cassava yields are 25–30 tons per hectare, one of the highest in the world; the national average is 19 tons per hectare, and the world average is 10 tons.
The Salem Steel Plant, a unit of the Steel Authority of India, produces cold-rolled stainless steel and a hot-rolled stainless-carbon steel alloy. The plant is being expanded and modernized, with plans for steel-melting and continuous-casting facilities. The Southern Iron and Steel Company (part of JSW Steel) have their first integrated steel plant in Salem for the production of TMT corrosion-resistant bars and alloy steels. The Salem region is rich in mineral ores, with some of the largest magnesite and bauxite deposits in India. Public and private magnesite factories include Burn Standard and Company, Dalmia Magnesites and Tata Refractories.
The Leigh Bazaar is the region's largest market for agricultural products, and Narasus Coffee, Nandhi Dall Mills (an old flour mill) and BSP Refineries (Usha Refined Sunflower Oil) are in Salem.The Tamil Nadu government and the Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu are planning a 160-acre (65 ha) IT park in the city. The Steel Authority of India is planning a 250-acre (100 ha) steel special economic zone in its Salem plant, and an electrical and electronics industrial estate is in the Suramangalam area of the city.
Road: Salem has six arterial roads: Omalur Road, Cherry Road, Saradha College Road, Junction Main Road, Gugai Main Road and Attur Road. Three National Highways originate in or pass through: NH 7 (Varanasi - Kanyakumari), NH 47 (Salem - Kanyakumari via Coimbatore, Kochi and Kollam) and NH 68 (Salem - Ulundurpet). NH 68 is the preferred route from Salem to Chennai. All National Highways in the City have four lanes. Other main roads originating in Salem are the state highways SH 168 (Yercaud Road) and SH 18 (Tiruppattur Road). Salem is the headquarters of TNSTC Division 1, Salem (SLM-DIV-I) and Division 2, Dharmapuri (SLM-DIV-II). Salem has the second-highest number of buses to Bangalore, Mettur Dam via Mecheri, Hyderabad and Tirupati in Tamil Nadu, behind Chennai. The city has two major bus stations: the MGR Integrated Bus Terminus (Central Bus Stand) in Meyyanoor and the Town Bus Station (Old Bus Stand) in downtown Salem. Intercity and interstate routes originate at the Central Bus Stand, and local buses originate at the Old Bus Stand. The Anna Flyover is the oldest in the city, and the Trumpet Interchange was built in the realignment of NH 47 to ease traffic to Coimbatore and Cochin.
Rail: Salem Junction is located in Suramangalam, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) west of the city and connects to major towns across the country. In 2005, the Railway Board approved the creation of a Salem railway division from Palakkad and Tiruchirapalli divisions. It is the fourth-largest of the six Southern Railway zone divisions.
Air: Salem Airport (IATA SXV, ICAO VOSM) is on the Salem-Bangalore Highway (NH 7) in Kaamalapuram about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from the city. Airports Authority of India (AAI) opened the airport in 1993 for commercial operations. Kingfisher Airlines flew from Chennai but ended its service in 2012 due to low occupancy. The nearest major airports are Tiruchirappalli (TRZ, 152 km), Coimbatore (CJB, 159 km), Bangalore (BLR, 235 km) and Chennai (MAA, 324 km).
Yercaud in the Servarayan Hills (Shevaroy Range) of Salem District. It is a quite pleasant hill resort in Tamil Nadu. The name is derived from the Picturesque Yeri (Lake) once surrounded by Kadu (forest). Yercaud is a Beautiful hill station with a pleasant cool climate. Yercaud's temperature never rises above 30 C or falls below 13 C . This is one hill station where one does not feel the biting cold of winter. With such a salubrious climate, Yercaud can be visited round the year. It is 30 Km from Salem and is the least expensive hill station in India.
Mettur is a picnic spot situated 60 k.m. from Salem. An industrial town on the west bank of the Kaveri. The river fish caught here are exported as far as Calcutta. The major Dam ( 5,300' long, 176' high) of the state, across the Kaveri. It was built between the hills of Seetha Malai and Palamalai during the late 1929s. The water in its reservoir ( 5,46,000 cubic feet) is primarily intended for irrigation. A portion of its is let down for generating electricity.
Utthumalai is situated 6 K.M from Salem. Viewing Salem from this point is pleasant memory.