History of district:
Sivaganga District is an administrative district of Tamil Nadu state in Southern India. It is bounded by Pudukkottai district on the Northeast, Tiruchirapalli district on the North, Ramanathapuram district on South East, Virudhunagar district on South West and Madurai District on the West. As of 2011, the district had a population of 1,339,101 with a sex-ratio of 1,003 females for every 1,000 males.
During the 17th century, Sivaganga was ruled by the Kingdom of Ramnad, which had its boundary spreading across modern day Sivaganga, Pudukkottai and Ramnathapuram. The seventh king of the empire, Ragunatha Sethupathy (also called Kelvan Sethupathy) ruled from 1674 to 1710 and was succeeded by his sister's son Vijia Regunatha Sethupathy. He was succeeded by his son-in-law Sundareswara Regunatha Sethupathy in 1726. Bavani Sankara Thevan, the illegitimate son of Regunatha Sethupathy aligned with the Rajah of Tanjore to attack Ramnad. Though Bavani won, he did not honour the earlier decision to cede some portions of the empire to the King of Tanjore. He quarrelled with Sasivarna Periya Oodaya Thevar and sent him out of his province. Both Sasivarna and Kattaya Thevar, the brother of Sundareswara, aligned with the Rajah of Tanjore. Both of them conquered Bavani in 1730 with the help of the army of Tanjore. Kattaya Thevar divided the kingdom into five provinces and gave two to Sasivarna, who became the first king of Sivaganga. As per legend, Sasivarna built the Teppakulam and fort around the spring "Sivaganga", where he met his spiritual guru Sathappier. As per another account, Sasivarna was appointed as the king by the Nawab of Carnatic. Sasivarna died at around 1750 and his son Muthuvaduganatha Periya Udaya Thevar took over the reign. He was shot dead in 1780 by Nawab's troops. His widow Velu Nachiyar and infant Vellachi fled the region and were aided by two maruthu brothers namely periya Maruthu and Chinna Maruthu. Velu Nachiyar ruled the region till 1790, when her daughter succeeded her. The brothers still continued the support the new queen. The brothers rebelled against the British East India Company and Nawab of Carnatic, who was supporting the Company. The brothers were later captured and hanged in Tirupathoor. The Company appointed Gowry Vallaba Periya Oodaya Thevar as the Zamindar of Sivaganga in 1801.
Main occupation of the district:
Graphite is one of the common resources in Sivagangai. Graphite is used as an industrial lubricant and as a moderator in nuclear reactors. Very valuable graphite is available in Sivagangai and its surrounding areas.The Sivaganga graphite is of flaky variety with 14% average Fixed Carbon used in the manufacture of refractory bricks, expanded graphite, crucibles and carbon brushes. TAMIN has over 600 acres of graphite bearing land in Pudupatti, Kumaripatti and Senthiudayanathapuram of Sivaganga taluk, Sivagangai District, Tamil Nadu. Estimated reserve of graphite ore in leasehold area is three million tonnes.(recoverable graphite from 14% F.C is approximately 3 lakh tonnes).
The majority of the workforce is dependent on agriculture (72.8%). The principal crop of Sivaganga district is paddy rice. Most of the district has red soil. The other crops grown are sugarcane, groundnuts, pulses, millet and cereals. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University plans to set up the State's first Red Soil Dryland Research Centre in Sivaganga district.
Sakthi sugar factory is also located in Padamathur, Sivaganga. It has the capacity to produce more than 5000 tons of sugar per day. It provides employment to more than 1000 labourers, directly and indirectly. Moser Baer Clean Energy Limited has commissioned a 5 MW grid connected solar PV project at Sivaganga, Tamil Nadu. The project was awarded to Sapphire Industrial Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of MBCEL, through a competitive bidding process conducted by the Tamil Nadu Renewable Development Agency. The project is implemented under the 50 MWp generation based incentive scheme of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India.
Road: Buses that connect the nearby villages and smaller towns (e.g. Devakottai, Manamadurai, Kalayar koil, Thirupathur, Illayankudi, Thiruvadanai) terminate at the Sivagangai bus-stand. The State Transport Corporation runs long-distance buses to Coimbatore, Chennai from Sivagangai bus-stand. All mofussil buses that connect Sivagangai with towns such as Madurai, Salem, Trichy, Sivakasi, Aruppukottai, Dindigul, Palani, Pattukottai, Thanjavur, Theni, Erode, Aranthangi, Nagore, Thiruvarur, Mannargudi, Velankanni, Rameshwaram, Ramanathapuram, Kalayar Kovil, Paramakudi, Mudukulathoor, Pudukottai, Nagapattinam, Tiruppur, Coimbatore(TNSTC), terminate at the bus-stand. And 24 Hrs buses available to reach Madurai[Mattuthavani Integrated Bus Terminus].
National Highway 85 Cochin-Munnar-Bodinayakanur-Theni-Madurai City-Sivagangai-Thondi, NH 226 Thanjavur-Pudukottai-Tirupathur-Sivagangai-Manamadurai and State Highway SH 34 Ramanathapuram-Ilayankudi-Sivagangai-Melur are the major roads passing via Sivaganga.
Train: Sivagangai railway station is located in the east side of town, where the railway line of Trichy-Rameshwaram join and this is serving as Guard line for Virudhunagar to Tiruchirapalli Jn for southern districts trains to reach Chennai Egmore and also operating for goods service due to reduce the rush in main line ( Virudhunagar, Madurai Jn, Dindigul, Tiruchy ). Several Express trains and passenger trains are passing through the town and connecting with the cities like Karaikudi, Rameshwaram, Ramanathapuram, Tiruchirapalli, Coimbatore, Erode, Tiruppur, Chennai Egmore, Thanjavur, Viluppuram, Cuddalore, Pudukottai, Virudhachalam, Varanasi, Bhuvaneswar,etc. So There are direct trains from Madurai connecting the important cities in Tamil Nadu like Chennai, Coimbatore, Kanyakumari, Trichy, Tirunelveli, Karaikudi, Mayiladuthurai, Rameswaram, Thanjavur and Virudhachalam. Madurai has rail connectivity with important cities and towns in India.
Vettangudi Bird Sanctuary, which is located near to Tirupattur, attracts a number of migratory birds such as white ibis, asian openbill stork and night heron, as well as some endangered species including the painted stork, gray heron, darter, little cormorant, little egret, intermediate egret, cattle egret, common teal, spotbill, pintail and flamingos. The best season to visit is from November to February.
Chettinad is the homeland of the Nattukottai Chettiars (Nagarathar), a prosperous banking and business community. It is well known for its Chettinad cuisine, which is very hot and spicy. In fact, Chettinad has one of the South Indian cuisines with large number of specialty restaurants. A typical meal will have meat, a large number of courses, and is served on a banana leaf. Also, the old Chettiar mansions are rich in heritage, art and architecture. For example, Kanadukathan has one such beautiful palatial house. The affluence of the chettiars are shown off in their palatial houses. Carved teak wood doors and frames, marble floors, granite pillars, Belgian mirrors and Italian tiles are the norms.
- Anjanamaar Panch Shaheedh Waliyullah dargah, Kannaar Street, Manamadurai.
- Hazrat Syed Salaar Sha Shaheed Waliyullah, Raziyallah ta'ala anhu dargah, Pallichandai.
- Ariyakudi in the South Tirupathi is a 400-year-old temple just 3 km away from Karaikudi.
- Pillayarpatti Vinayagar Temple, Pillayarpatti, around 15 km away from Karaikudi.
- Koviloor Temple, Karaikudi
- Kandadevi Temple
- Idaikattur Church
- Kollangudi Vettudaiyar Kaliamman Temple
- Kaleeswarar Temple
- Nagarasivan Temple
- Kundrakudi TempleKollakalaiamman Temple
- Kallal Somasundaram Soundara Nayagi Temple and its Masimaham Festival mostly in the month of February every year.
- Panchabhutheswaram, known as Vedhiyanendal Vilakku, is 5 km away from Manamadurai. It is on the way to Paramakudi via Elaiyankudi, the route in which Lord Rama went to Sri Lanka to confront Ravanan. More importantly, this place is known for its hard cut-rock (granite) temple dedicated to Shri Maha Panchamukha Prathyangira Devi. It also houses the big deity of the god. There are two more sannidhies for Lakshmi Ganapathi and Sornagarshna Bhairavar. It has come in a total area of about 5.5 acres (22,000 m2). Soon within the temple premises, ten more sannidhies are going to come for Dasamaha Vidya.
- Madapuram Badrakali Amman temple, Madapuram
- Thayamangalam muthu mariyamman temple
- Thirumalai thirumal kovil.