History of district:
Thiruvarur district is one of the 32 districts in the Tamil Nadu state of India. The district occupies an area of 2161 kmē. It lies between Nagapattinam district on the east and Thanjavur District on the west, and is bounded by the Palk Strait on the south. The district headquarters is at Thiruvarur town. As of 2011, the district had a population of 1,264,277 with a sex-ratio of 1,017 females for every 1,000 males.
The Thiruvarur district, along with the Nagapattinam district was part of the Thanjavur District before 1991. After that, the present Taluks of Thiruvarur district and Nagapattinam district were separated from the Thanjavur District, and formed the Nagapattinam district. The present Thiruvarur district was formed in 1997 by trifurcating the then Thanjavur District. Major towns are Thiruvarur, Thiruthuraipoondi, Nachikulam, Muthupettai, Mannargudi.
Main occupation of the district:
Thiruvarur lies in the Kaveri River basin and the main occupation of the inhabitants of the town and surrounding regions is agriculture. More than 70% of the workforce is involved in agriculture; 14% being cultivators and rest are agricultural labourers. Paddy is cultivated in three seasons namely Kuruvai (June-August), Samba (August-January) and Thaladi (January-March). The daily wages of the agricultural labourers is more than the rates fixed by the Tamil Nadu government, but due to the decline in number of days of work, the income levels are lower. As of 1998, the male labourers were employed 150 days a year, while the female labourers for 120 days. A government report in 2006 put these numbers at 120 and 100 days respectively. Due to the discontinuity in the working days, the labourers migrate to other states like Gujarat and Kerala. They also shift to other professions like construction industry in the urban centres and textile industry in the district. There are no industrial estates in the town and the district - as of 2012, a government proposal is formulated to develop one at Vaippur village. Modern agricultural tools like hullers have replaced labourers and reduce the profit margin of small trders and labourers. There are no co-operative societies who acquire the farm products and the District Purchasing Centre, operated by the government of Tamil Nadu is the major procurer.
Being an agricultural town, the predominant industries are agriculture based like modern rice milling, palm oil refinery, poultry, live stock and coir based. Tamil Nadu Civil Supplies Corporation operating a modern rice mill and South India Edible Oil involved in refining oil are the large scale industries in the town. There are small service enterprises involved in automobile servicing, hotels, hospitals, boat repairing and nylon fishnet repairing. There is a weekly market at Thanjai Salai and a daily market maintained by the municipality, where vegetables and fish are sold.
Nationalized banks such as State Bank of India, Indian Bank, Central Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, Indian Overseas Bank and private banks like ICICI Bank, City Union Bank have their branches in Thiruvarur. Kumbakonam Co-operative Bank, Tiruvarur Co-operative Bank and Primary Agriculture Bank are the cooperative banks that have their branches in the town. All these banks have their Automated teller machines located in various parts of the town.
Road: Thiruvarur municipality accommodates 94.06 km of roads: 54.9 km of BT roads, 10.91 km of metal roads, 9.48 km of cement roads and 18.75 km of highways. Thiruvarur is connected by three national highways, NH 45A to Viluppuram, NH 67 to Coimbatore. Thiruvarur is connected with Chennai, Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli, Karaikal and other major towns of Tamil Nadu through the state highways SH 23 from Mayiladuthurai to Thiruthuraipoondi, SH 67 from Thanjavur to Kodikkarai, SH 65 from Thiruvarur to Kumbakonam, SH 66 from Kumbakonam to Adiramapattinam, SH 67 from Nagore to Nachiyar Koil, SH 146 from Mannargudi to Sethubavachatram, SH 147 Kumbakonam to Karaikkal, SH 151 Kilvelur to Kachanam. The Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation operates close to 175 daily services connecting various cities to Thiruvarur. Most of the buses via Thiruvarur are operated by the corporation ply between Trichy and Velankanni. The corporation operates a computerised reservation centre in the municipal bus stand of the town. It also operates 25 town buses satisfying the local transport needs of Thiruvarur and the neighbouring villages. The State Express Transport Corporation operates long distance buses connecting the town to Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram and Marthandam.
Train: Thiruvarur railway junction is a four way junction connecting Thanjavur in the west, Mayiladuthurai in the north, Nagapattinam in the east and Thiruthuraipoondi in the south. Gauge conversion between Mayiladuthurai and Thiruvarur was completed in August 2012 and the inaugural train ran from Bangalore to Nagore via Thiruvarur. There are passenger trains to Trichy, Thanjavur, Mayiladuthurai, Karaikal, Mannargudi and Thiruthuraipoondi. Gauge conversion between Thiruvarur and Karaikudi is in progress and there is only partial connectivity in the segment connecting Pattukottai, Thirthuraipoondi and Karaikudi. There is a daily express train to Chennai via Mayiladuthurai and Ernakulam. The are two trains from Mannargudi to Tirupathi and Velankanni to Goa, operated three times a week that pass through Thiruvarur.
- Arulmigu Thiayagaraja Temple is situated at Tiruvarur.
- Arulmigu Saraswathi Temple at Koothanur, Nannilam Taluk, 22 Kms from Tiruvarur.
- Bird Sanctuary at Vaduvoor in Mannargudi Taluk. Vaduvoor is 23 Kms from Thanjavur.
- Jambavanodai Dharga in Thiruthuraipoondi Taluk. Holy place for Muslims. 53 Kms from Thiruvarur and 25 Kms from Thiruthuraipoondi.
- Muthupettai (Jambavanodai) Lagoon in Thiruthuraipoondi Taluk. 56 Kms from Thiruvarur.
- Bird Sanctuary at Udayamarthandapuram in Thiruthuraipoondi Taluk. Udayamarthandapuram is 20 Kms from Thiruthuraipoondi.
- Arulmigu Kothandaramar Temple at Thillaivilagam in Thiruthuraipoondi Taluk. It is 20 Kms from Thiruthuraipoondi.
- Arulmigu Rajagopalaswamy Temple at Mannargudi. Mannargudi is 28 Kms from Thiruvarur.
- Sivan Temple at Alangudi. Alangudi is 35 Kms from Thiruvarur and 15 Kms from Kumbakonam. It is one of the star (GURU) of the Navagrahas.
- Arulmigu Murugan Temple is situated at Engan. Engan is 13 Kms from Thiruvarur.